Visiting Scholar at the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs (Harvard University), I am Associate Professor of International Business at HEC Montréal and Vice-President Strategy and International Economics at CIRANO (Canada). I am also Researcher at CERIUM-CEUE (University of Montreal). I was Associate Professor at Polytechnique Montreal (Director of the International Projects Program), Associate Professor at Middlebury College (Director of the International Studies and IPE program) and Academic Director at SIE-Sun Yat Sen University in Guangzhou. As VP at Cirano, I organize, co-organize, or support bi-weekly luncheons, seminars and one or more international conferences or workshops every year (i.e. Central Banking and Supervision, Too Big To Fail Conference, International Trade and Finance Annual Conference, Networks in Trade and Finance Annual Conference, Myths and Realities about the BRICS). I have authored numerous academic publications and books or special issues.
An alumnus of the Salzburg Global Seminar, I held positions in several academic institutions (Middlebury College USA, Polytechnique Montreal, Sun Yat Sen University Guangzhou, Essec Business School Paris, HEC Paris, La Sorbonne, UIBE Beijing). My research is mainly on international economics and finance topics, with a particular focus on the European economic integration.
An alumnus of the Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies at Harvard University, I completed my PhD in monetary economics and finance at Essec Business School in Paris.
- Visiting Scholar, Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, 2015-Present
- Associate Professor, HEC Montréal, Department of International Business, 2013-Present
- Academic Director, SIE – Sun Yat Sen University, Guanzhou (China), 2013-2014
- Associate Professor, Polytechnique Montréal, Department of Mathematics and Industrial Engineering, 2010-2013
- Associate Professor of Economics, Middlebury College, Department of Economics, 2001-2012
- Visiting Fellow, Harvard University – Minda de Ginzburg Center for European Studies, 2004-2005
Nobel economist James Tobin: “It’s better to build our scholarship around pressing real-world problems than simply to fill little gaps in the literature.”
My research is primarily in a field called Positive Political Economy. I use data science (R, GIS, econometrics) to study institutions, regulations and economic dynamics. More specifically, my region of interest is Europe. In fact, I study the European Union from an economic, political and financial integration perspective since its inception in 1993. Mainly, this means I study the internal integration process and challenges of Europe (ECB, SGP, European Banking Union, etc.) as well as the external challenges affecting Europe (2008 financial crisis, emerging countries, refugee crisis, etc.).
I started my research in open macroeconomics studying the link between macroeconomics and game theory (credibility models). I extended canonical credibility models to open economy. The use of game theory allowed me to introduce a political economy perspective. The goal was to have a framework to study the credibility of the new European Central Bank in the late 1990s.
This framework lead me to study the optimum currency area theory as well as the endogenous optimal currency area (e-OCA) literature. One of my papers is one of the first attempts to validate the e-OCA in the context of the European economic integration. The e-OCA literature is particularly interesting when it comes to studying the dynamics of regionalization. Then, I studied some other elements of this framework: the fiscal and structural policies as key elements of a regional integration, and in particular the question of policy coordination (i.e. the Stability and Growth Pact in Europe). In terms of methodology, I have used game theory, econometrics, DSGE models, and high-frequency and unstructured data (social media). I am an avid user of R. Another key element for a regional integration is financial integration. It is also related to the e-OCA theory as an important tool for integration. FDI from multinational enterprises and financial regulations for the banking sector are then very relevant.
From studying international and European financial regulations, I got interested obviously in the 2008 financial crisis. At the crossroad of finance and financial regulations lays the concept of systemic risk. Interestingly enough, traditional modern portfolio theory defines systematic and specific risks out of CAPM. In one of my papers, I augment the MPT theoretical framework by introducing asset price inflation (assumed to be one of the key elements in the 2008 financial crisis) and as a result I can add a third definition of risk: systemic risk. As a consequence, the new model justifies and calls for better financial regulations.
On a different note, I am also interested in Industrial Organization, mostly thanks to my teaching in a Business School and from my interest in game theory. I like writing case studies of firms that I have visited in several countries across the world. It helps me understand the dynamics of globalization and regionalization.
Keywords: regional integration, convergence, integration, financial integration, policy coordination, globalization, regionalization
Education & Professional Development
- Ph.D. in Monetary Economics and Finance, “Central Banks Credibility and Monetary Discipline, An Open Economy Model”, ESSEC Business School, 2000
Other Biographical Elements
I am also interested in economic development and I have done research on this topic in the Balkans for the World Bank and Haiti for the Inter-American development Bank. I have also created a small NGO in Haïti called Ed’Haïti aiming at helping young children to get access to primary education. I am currently president of Ed’Haïti. It is a family-run NGO, a very small one, we support three schools in Port-au-Prince and Miragoânes, totalling 1500 pupils. These three schools are in very unprivileged neighbourhoods, where it is tougher for other (bigger) NGOs to intervene. If you want to support us, do not hesitate to donate money or time. You can reach us on Ed’Haïti’s website through the contact form. I have also initiated a couple of projects, among others the Ambassadors’ Alliance, the CIRANO-Harvard Club of Quebec Seminar, the Avant-Garde @ CIRANO, and a high-tech platform about Data Science for International Business called Mondo International.
With my family, we have spent some significant time working and traveling in China (Beijing, Guanzhou), Europe, the U.S. and now Canada. I have also done and organized field studies of companies and local institutions throughout Europe, China, South Africa, Australia, USA, North Africa and some countries in Latin America, totalling more than 100 companies, central banks, international organisations and ministries studying the engines of globalization and the industrial policies of countries.
While being the academic coordinator of PolyMonde at Polytechnique Montreal, I have also created PolyFinances, an academic program to bridge engineering and international finance and I have organized three campuses for PolyFinances (two in New York City and one in Washington D.C.). After having joined HEC Montreal, I remain on the board of PolyFinances.
Honors and Awards
- Laureate of the best teacher award, Polytechnique Montreal – Gala Meritas Award, 2013
- Finalist of the best teacher award, Polytechnique Montreal – Gala Meritas Award, 2012
- Laureate of the best teacher award, Polytechnique Montreal – Gala Meritas Award, 2011
- Best special issue of International Journal of Economics and Business Research titled “The Euro at 10”, B&ESI Prize (Business and Economics Society International), 2010
- Laureate of the best teacher award, Middlebury College – Marjorie Lamberti Faculty Appreciation Award, 2009
- Finalist of the best teacher award, Middlebury College – Marjorie Lamberti Faculty Appreciation Award, 2006
- Finalist for the best PhD dissertation from the Paris Universities’ Chancellery, Gaetan Pirou Prize in Economic and Management Sciences, 2001
- Laureate of the best PhD dissertation award, all disciplines, University of Paris-II Assas, 2000
- Finalist of the best teacher award, HEC Paris – Vernimmen-Paribas Faculty Appreciation Award, 1999
- Laureate of the best teacher award, HEC Paris – Vernimmen-Paribas Faculty Appreciation Award, 1998
- Co-laureate of the prize for the book “Euro mode d’emploi” (published by Litec, Paris, 1998), Afede Prize (French Association of Corporate Economists), 1998
- Positive Political Economy
- International Trade and Finance
- International Political Economy
- European Economic Integration
- Network Economics and Innovation
Some Business Related Info
My first business was a landscape and construction company, but since I was not an adult (and also I don’t think everything I did was totally legal) it is better to forget it. But it was so much fun. I understood then that customer’ satisfaction was essential. My second business was during my senior year in Paris. I coded a financial software called Anafin (standing for “Analyse financière”). I don’t think the programming language still exists ;-). This software proposed to download stock prices and did some time series analyzes as well as provided some CAPM-based results. It was before JP Morgan sold the VaR model to Wall Street. The only issue was that it was before the wide spread of the Internet in France, and no one wanted to buy the software from this young guy. A couple of years later, after I learned how to shoot planes with missiles and some other “think outside of the box” skills during my military service, I joined a small team of incredible and famous people in the European media world in order to create an economic magazine, then another one, and then I was one of main architects (and owner, yesssss!) of a media convergence firm (Radio, TV, Internet) also with an economic and finance focus. Guess what? Anafin came alive since Internet users could manage their portfolio online with topnotch and user-friendly tools. “Never let a good (product) go to waste” to rearrange Winston Churchill’s famous quote. I also learned some new skills (on top of the ones from my military service) about the media industry. It is definitely a world I love. It was also one of the biggest round A funding in Paris at that time. While in Paris, I also designed an online magazine (TaGénération) for the 18-30 year old generation. It did not really work. Now Melty.fr is apparently a big success. Lesson 1: do not be too early!
Then life brought me to the other side of the Atlantic. I then participated to a MOOC (at that time, it was called “online courses” for business people, and it was about the introduction of the euro). Not a big success as well. Lesson 2: do not be too early! I also tried to sell an app called Joeletaxi with the idea of sharing trips and also creating a taxi platform in cities where there are none across the developping world. Not a big success, though Uber now is worth $17bn. Lesson 3: do not be too early! I am passing on some other failures (too embarrassing) and now I work on a couple of projects all related to data science for international business (nuance-r.com, www.mondo.international)
I want to reward you for having read this far… You want some great “too early” business ideas? You don’t mind the risks? Well, it is up to you. Business idea #1: start anything that could be bought by Apple or Google in the health insurance industry. Apple and Google are going to the health insurance industry? Really? Well, the truth is they may not know it yet. However, with the iWatch, the new iOS, and the biometrics all the new gizmos will collect and aggregate, Apple and Google (and others) will realize soon that they can predict your health issues with a high probability just using big data analysis. The next move is obvious: they will be able to offer you, through iTunes, your health insurance as they offer you a membership to iTunes Match for your music. Crazy? Again, it is up to you. Think also about the health ministries across the world and the challenges this shift will pose to them. Business idea #2: Ease my life and the one of millions of customers in terms of transportation (apps, hardware, etc.). Business idea #3: no sorry, I keep it, I think this one is not too early 😉